Tumor Microenvironment (TME)

Tumor Microenvironment (TME)

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the environment around a tumor mass that consists not only of cancer cells but also of stromal cells, neovessels, immune cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). TME plays key roles in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Understanding TME is critical for the development of anti-cancer therapies.


Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)

CAFs are the predominant stromal cells in TME and are associated with all stages of the cancer. CAFs enhance proliferation, angiogenesis, EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), ECM remodeling and metastasis. Besides, CAFs promote immunosuppression by recruiting immunosuppressive cells, including MDSCs and TAMs, and thus suppress the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), leading to tumor escape. Moreover, CAFs facilitate recurrence and drug resistance by promoting cancer stemness, metabolic modulations, and interference in immunotherapies. Targeting CAFs becomes a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.


CAF Marker Antibody Panel (ARG30347)

Myofibroblast Differentiation Antibody Duo (ARG30322)

EMT Marker Antibody Panel (ARG30320)




In TME, uncontrolled cell proliferation leads to hypoxia which triggers angiogenesis for tumor growth and metastasis. An increasing number of studies indicated that angiogenesis and immunomodulation interact closely. The pro-angiogenic factors not only induce the formation of tumor vasculature, but also suppress the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) or recruiting immunosuppressive cells. The tumor vasculature serve as a barrier for CTLs, as well as disables and kills CTLs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive cells, in turn, promote tumor angiogenesis, which disrupted anti-tumor immunity. Combination of anti-angiogenesis therapy and immunotherapy have become important strategies in cancer treatment.


Microvascular Density Antibody Panel (ARG30327)


Tumor immune microenvironment

Tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) contains numerous immune cells. These cells include anti-tumor lymphocytes such as CTLs and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as pro-tumor cells with immunosuppressive functions, such as regulatory T cells (Treg), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TIME plays a significant role in tumor immune surveillance and tumor immune escape. Understanding the TIME is essential for the development of effective cancer immunotherapy.


Tumor immune surveillance
Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocyte Antibody Panel (ARG30334)


Tumor immune escape
M1/M2/TAM Marker Antibody Panel (ARG30333)

Regulatory T Cell Marker Antibody Duo (ARG30086)

Human MDSC Marker Antibody Duo (ARG30336)

Mouse MDSC Marker Antibody Duo (ARG30335)